Infusion devices are widely used in intensive care, e.g., in hemodialysis machines for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. These systems purify the blood of the patient in an extracorporeal cycle in a dialyzer. The diffusion of the toxins takes place between the blood and the dialysate, which is separated by a biocompatible dialysis membrane. In this way, toxins are removed from the blood that would otherwise remain in the bloodstream due to the damage of the kidneys and the resulting impaired detoxification function. After dialysis, the blood is returned to the bloodstream of the patient.
Blood transfusions or the so-called cardiopulmonary bypass, also known as the heart-lung machine, are additional application areas for infusion systems. In lifesaving surgeries, e.g., with an open heart, these systems perform a pumping function of the heart and ensure the oxygen supply of the blood, which is normally ensured by the lung.