- Products ProductsPI는 모션∙포지셔닝 솔루션을 제공하는 글로벌 기업입니다. PI는 선형, 회전, 수직, 다축 시스템 등 정밀 스테이지와 액추에이터를 개발 및 생산하고 고객의 애플리케이션에 맞게 최적의 솔루션을 적용합니다. 정밀 제어를 위한 컨트롤러, 하드웨어, 소프트웨어 인터페이스 또한 제공하고 있습니다.
- New Products New Products
- Product Finder Product FinderSelect the product type specified by the axes of motion required. Selection of more criteria expands or shortens the list of results. Select more than one filter at a time, for example, to find positioning stages designed for higher load capacity, too.
- Customized Products Customized ProductsPI is fully at home where unconventional solutions are in demand. This is no longer limited to fields of research. Today, nanotechnology is also present in standardized industrial processes.
- Nanopositioning Piezo Flexure Stages Nanopositioning Piezo Flexure StagesPI's piezo flexure stages combine sub-nanometer resolution and guiding precision with minimum crosstalk.
- Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages
- PIFOC® Objective & PInano® Sample Scanners for Microscopy PIFOC® Objective & PInano® Sample Scanners for Microscopy
- Linear Piezo Flexure Stages Linear Piezo Flexure Stages
- XY Piezo Flexure Stages XY Piezo Flexure Stages
- Piezo Flexure Tilting Mirrors Piezo Flexure Tilting Mirrors
- Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages
- Miniature Stages Miniature StagesMiniaturized stages and manipulators are essential in mobile applications for measuring and medical devices, in industrial microassembly or use for research, e.g. in UHV and non-magnetic environments.
- Miniature Linear Stages Miniature Linear Stages
- Miniature Rotation Stages Miniature Rotation Stages
- Miniature Hexapods Miniature Hexapods
- Miniature Linear Stages
- Linear Stages Linear StagesPI offers a wide range of motorized linear stages to supply high-precision industrial markets like semiconductor and photonics, as well as high-end research. Vacuum versions are available for a large number of different models. Multi-axis compositions can be set up with adapter brackets or specialized vertical stages and compatible rotation stages.
- Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor
- Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors
- Vertical Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors Vertical Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors
- Miniature Linear Stages Miniature Linear Stages
- Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor
- Linear Actuators Linear ActuatorsChoose from the widest range of technologies the optimum for your special demands: Set-and-forget applications benefit from the specific features of piezomotors that provide excellent long-term stability, also for vacuum or nonmagnetic environments. Stepper and DC motor solutions are well-established and reliable for both industrial and research use.
- PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability
- Linear Actuators with Stepper & DC Servo Motors Linear Actuators with Stepper & DC Servo Motors
- PIMag® VC Voice Coil Actuators with High Dynamics & Force Control Option PIMag® VC Voice Coil Actuators with High Dynamics & Force Control Option
- PiezoMove Lever Actuators PiezoMove Lever Actuators
- Nanopositioning Piezo Actuators Nanopositioning Piezo Actuators
- PiezoWalk® Actuators with High Force & Stability PiezoWalk® Actuators with High Force & Stability
- PIRest Active Piezo Shims PIRest Active Piezo Shims
- PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability
- Rotation Stages Rotation StagesPI offers stages with all kinds of motorization and guiding options: air-bearing, torque motor driven, motorized worm-gear coupled, tiny piezomotor stages and specialized goniometer stages with orthogonal tip-tilt mounting option.
- XY Stages XY StagesStability, precision and dynamics are crucial in the application fields of PI’s XY stages. They are the basis of high throughput rates and reliable operation. PI makes use of own developments in the fields of PIMag® magnetic linear motors and PIglide air bearings. Industrial production and quality control benefit from PI’s high-load XY stages and planar scanners.
- Hexapods HexapodsHexapods provide 6 degrees of freedom in the most compact package. In combination with absolute measuring sensors, software and motion controllers that make the most complicated motion profiles easy to command, PI hexapods answer industrial requirements.
- Engineered Subsystems for Automation Engineered Subsystems for AutomationPrecision components, stable control and a great deal of experience in engineering are essential for high-precision complex motion and positioning solutions. PI is a supplier of technologically sophisticated drive components and high-precision positioners and also offers all levels of integration for engineered subsystems.
- Fast Multi-Channel Photonics Alignment Fast Multi-Channel Photonics Alignment SystemsPiezo scanners take care of fast, continuous scanning tasks, where durability, dynamics, and precision matter. The larger travel ranges are realized with XYZ combinations or 6-axis hexapods. Integrated routines make it possible to perform single-axis alignments up to complex, multi-axis fiber array positioning within the shortest possible time.
- Motion Control Software Motion Control SoftwareAll digital controllers made by PI are accompanied by an extensive software package.
- Concepts Concepts
- User Programs and Their Functions User Programs and Their Functions
- Software Tools for Hexapods Software Tools for Hexapods
- Programming Programming
- Third Party Support Third Party Support
- Controllers & Drivers Controllers & DriversThe decision for a motion controller depends on the specific application situation. Various criteria, such as limited installation space, the number of axes or the type of control, determine which controller is the right one. PI offers a broad spectrum of controls and regulation concepts.
- Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers
- Piezo Drivers for Open-Loop Operation of Piezo Actuators Piezo Drivers for Open-Loop Operation of Piezo Actuators
- Motion Controllers & Drivers for Linear, Torque, Stepper & DC Servo Motors Motion Controllers & Drivers for Linear, Torque, Stepper & DC Servo Motors
- Controllers & Drivers for Piezomotors Controllers & Drivers for Piezomotors
- Controller Systems for Multiple Axes & Mixed Drive Types Controller Systems for Multiple Axes & Mixed Drive Types
- Hexapod Motion Controllers Hexapod Motion Controllers
- Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers
- Piezoelectric Transducers & Actuators Piezoelectric Transducers & ActuatorsPiezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are available in a wide range of shapes like disks, plates or tubes, and different performance levels. They can be adapted to application requirements by using different piezoceramic materials, electrodes, and assembling technology.
- Air Bearings & Stages Air Bearings & StagesAir bearing stages are used where vibration-free motion is required, velocity needs to be highly constant, and optimum angular repeatability is requested.
- Sensors, Components & Accessories Sensors, Components & Accessories
- New Products
- OEM OEMPI는 고객 및 애플리케이션의 요구 사항에 따라 제품을 개발하고 기술 솔루션을 제공합니다.
- ApplicationsApplications & MarketsPI 포지셔닝 시스템은 반도체 제조, 의료, 생명 공학, 천문학, 계측, 자동화 등 다양한 산업 및 연구 분야에서 사용됩니다.
- Hexapods Support Industrial Robots Hexapods Support Industrial Robots
- Scientific Instrumentation Scientific Instrumentation
- Hexapod Systems for ALMA Hexapod Systems for ALMA
- Double-Crystal Monochromator Double-Crystal Monochromator for an X-Ray Spectrometer
- Materials Research in High Vacuum Materials Research in High Vacuum
- Active Vibration Isolation with Piezo Actuators Active Vibration Isolation with Piezo Actuators
- Drive Technology for the ELT Drive Technology for the ELT
- Hexapod Systems for ALMA
- Semiconductor Technology Semiconductor Technology
- Microscopy Microscopy
- Confocal Microscopy Adjustment of the Focal Planes in Confocal Microscopy
- Positioning Solutions for Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) Positioning Solutions for Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM)
- High-Speed Microscopy High-Speed Microscopy for Quality Control
- Atomic Force Microscopy AFM Scanner for Atomic Force Microscopy
- White Light Interferometry 3-D Surface Inspection With Piezo-Based Positioning Systems from PI
- Confocal Microscopy
- Silicon Photonics Silicon Photonics
- Photonics Packaging Automated Photonics Packaging
- Optical Fiber Alignment Simultaneous Testing of Optical Components in Silicon Photonics
- Photonics Packaging
- Medical Technology Medical Technology
- Endoscopy Chip-on-the-Tip Video Endoscopes with Miniature Drives
- Ophthalmology High-Precision Drives in Ophthalmic Surgery
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging Nonsensitive Drives for Magnetic Resonance Tomography
- Optical Coherence Tomography Piezo Technology and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
- Pipetting Piezomotors for Pipetting and Nanodispensing
- Precision Dosing Dynamic Drives for Precision Dosing with Nanodispensers
- Micropumps Piezoelectric Micropumps – Compact Design and High Performance
- Image Stabilization Image Stabilization and Microscanning with Piezo Scanners
- Adaptive Diaphragm Positioning Adaptive Diaphragm Positioning
- Materials Research Materials Research
- Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research High-Load Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research
- Laser Beam Control Piezo Drives for Laser Beam Control
- Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research
- Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical Discharge Machining Piezo Actuators Accelerate Electrical Discharge Machining
- Hexapods in Mechanical Engineering Hexapods in Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical Discharge Machining
- Automation Automation
- Smarter Motion Positioning Smarter Motion Positioning
- Hexapods in Microproduction Hexapods in Microproduction
- Hexapods for Quality Assurance Hexapods for Quality Assurance
- Magnetic Direct Drives Magnetic Direct Drives
- Motion Simulation with Hexapods Motion Simulation with Hexapods
- Flexibility in Dimensional Measuring Hexapod Systems in Automation
- Motion Compensation with Hexapods Motion Compensation with HexapodsDynamic hexapods with piezo drives: Best conditions for motion compensation.
- Fast Piezo Ultrasonic Drives Advance Technology Fast Piezo Ultrasonic Drives Advance Technology
- Laser Material Processing Laser Material Processing
- Smarter Motion Positioning
- Beamline Instrumentation Beamline Instrumentation
- Tomography Equipment Tomography Equipment
- Synchrotron Spectroscopy in Vacuum Synchrotron Spectroscopy in Vacuum
- Beam Preparation Beam Preparation
- Sample Positioning for Tomography Sample Positioning for Tomography
- Microscopy Microscopy
- Accelerator Technology Accelerator Technology
- Tomography Equipment
- Additive Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing
- TechnologyKnow-How & TechnologyPI는 마이크로 및 나노포지셔닝의 오랜 경험과 노하우를 바탕으로 기계, 전자, 센서 엔지니어링, 소프트웨어 등의 전문 지식과 최첨단 드라이브 기술 및 시스템 솔루션을 제공합니다.
- Piezo Technology Piezo TechnologyPI Ceramic offers a wealth of experience in the manufacturing of piezoceramic materials, components, and actuators. The piezoceramic materials can be adapted individually to perfectly fit the later use of the piezo components.
- Fundamentals of Piezo Technology Fundamentals of Piezo TechnologyPhysical basics and explanations of piezo electricity and electromechanics.
- Properties of Piezo Actuators Properties of Piezo Actuators
- Piezoceramic Materials Piezoceramic MaterialsPI Ceramic offers a variety of different piezoelectric materials including lead-free materials.
- Manufacturing Technology Manufacturing Technology
- PICMA® Technology PICMA® Technology
- Integrated Piezo Actuators Integrated Piezo Actuators
- DuraAct Patch Transducer Technology DuraAct Patch Transducer Technology
- PIRest Actuators PIRest ActuatorsActive shims with long-term stability and nanometer resolution.
- Fundamentals of Piezo Technology
- Piezoelectric Drives Piezoelectric DrivesDepending on the configuration and control, piezoceramic actuators can be used to create translational motions or as motors with a virtually unlimited travel range. The choice of drive depends on the requirements of the application.
- Piezo Actuators Piezo Actuators with and without Guiding
- PiezoWalk® Walking Drives PiezoWalk® Walking Drives
- PILine® Ultrasonic Piezomotors PILine® Ultrasonic Piezomotors
- Piezo Inertia Drives Piezo Inertia Drives
- PiezoMike Linear Actuators PiezoMike Linear Actuators
- Comparison: Piezo Motors & Drive Technologies Comparison: Piezo Motors & Drive Technologies
- Piezo Actuators
- Electromagnetic Drives Electromagnetic DrivesRotating electric motors such as DC or stepper motors are used in connection with screw or worm drives. Stepper motor systems with high-resolution encoders can perform minimum incremental motions of 10 nm with high reliability and repeatability.
- Rotating Electric Motors Rotating Electric Motors from PI
- PIMag® Magnetic Direct Drives PIMag® Magnetic Direct Drives
- PIMag® 6-D Magnetic Levitation PIMag® 6-D Magnetic Levitation at Six Levels of Freedom
- Hybrid Concept Piezo & Motor Hybrid Concept
- Rotating Electric Motors
- Parallel Kinematics Parallel KinematicsIn a parallel-kinematic, multi-axis system, all actuators act directly on a single moving platform. This means that all axes can be designed with identical dynamic properties, thus reducing the moved mass considerably. Hexapods are used for moving and precision positioning, aligning and displacing loads in all six degrees of freedom, i.e., three linear and three rotational axes.
- Parallel Kinematics Piezo Positioning Systems with Parallel KinematicsIn a parallel-kinematic, multi-axis system, all actuators act directly on a single moving platform.
- Multi-Axis Positioners Multi-Axis Positioners and Stewart Platforms
- Hexapod as Motion Simulator Hexapod as Motion SimulatorMotion simulators have higher motion dynamics requirements (shakers).
- Parallel Kinematics
- Sensor Technologies Sensor TechnologiesThe linearity and repeatability achieved are not possible without highest-resolution measuring devices. Accuracies in the range of a few nanometers and below require a position measurement method that can also detect motion in this range.
- Capacitive Sensors Capacitance Nanosensors
- Incremental Sensors Linear Scale Encoders for Nanometrology & Nanopositioning
- PIOne Optical Nanometrology Encoder PIOne Optical Nanometrology Encoder
- Comparison: Position Sensor Technologies Comparison: Nanopositioning Sensor Technologies
- Capacitive Sensors
- Controllers & Software Controllers & SoftwareFast settling or extremely smooth low speed motion, high positional stability, high resolution and high dynamics – the requirements placed on piezo systems vary greatly and need drivers and controllers with a high degree of flexibility.
- Digital & Analog Interfaces Digital & Analog Interfaces
- EtherCAT Connectivity of PI Products EtherCAT Connectivity of PI Products
- Control of Piezo Actuators Piezo Controllers & Drivers for Nanopositioning Systems
- Digital Motion Controllers Digital Motion Controllers
- Digital & Analog Interfaces
- Guiding Systems & Force Transmission Guiding Systems & Force TransmissionFlexure joints, mechanical guide components or magnetic bearings? Which kind of guiding system PI uses in its products depends on parameters such as travel range, required precision, load, lifetime, and ambient conditions.
- Classical Guiding Systems Comparison: Classical Guiding Systems and Force Transmission
- Flexure Guiding Systems Flexure Guiding Systems for Nanopositioning & Piezo Actuators
- Magnetic Bearings Magnetic Levitation & Precision Bearings for NanopositioningMagnetic levitation allows excellent guiding accuracy in a plane, both linear and rotational.
- PIglide Air Bearing Technology PIglide Air Bearing TechnologyMulti-axis motion with nanometer precision and without friction.
- Classical Guiding Systems
- Vacuum Vacuum Compatible Linear & Rotary Stages, UHV PositionersCareful handling, adequate premises: PI does not only have the necessary equipment for the qualification of materials, components and final products, but also has many years of experience with regard to HV und UHV positioning systems.
- News & EventsNews & EventsPI의 신제품 출시, 전시회, 카탈로그 발간 등 주요 소식과 이벤트를 확인하실 수 있습니다.
- ServiceServicePI가 제공하는 기술 서비스와 온라인 서비스를 확인하실 수 있습니다.
- On-Site Services On-Site ServicesThe PI Global Services Division (GSD) is a team of PI skilled after-sales support engineers located around the world, dedicated to providing world class customer support.
- Extended Warranty Extended Warranty
- Contracted Services Contracted Services
- 문의하기 문의하기궁금하신 사항을 문의글로 남겨주시면 담당자가 신속하게 답변드리겠습니다.
- Downloads Downloads데이터시트, 브로셔, 카탈로그, 증명서, 기술 자료 등을 다운로드 할 수 있습니다.
- Product Documentation & Software Product Documentation & SoftwareUser manuals, technical notes, datasheets, CAD files for download.
- Catalogs, Brochures & Certificates Catalogs, Brochures & CertificatesFind brochures, catalogs and certificates for download.
- Whitepapers & Success Stories Whitepapers & Success StoriesFind whitepapers and success stories for download.
- Product Documentation & Software
- Expert Consultancy from PI Expert Consultancy from PIIf our customers need to solve a complex problem, they often require individual advice. We will come to visit you.
- About PI KoreaAbout PI KoreaPI는 끊임없는 기술 연구를 통해 정밀 포지셔닝에서 지속적인 성장과 기술적 우위를 이루었습니다. 40년 이상의 경험과 노하우로 다양한 애플리케이션에 폭 넓은 솔루션을 제공하고 있습니다.
- Technology Center Technology CenterThe technology center provides space not only for offices but also for application labs, metrology labs, and cleanrooms for vacuum or cryogenic chambers.
- Fractal Manufacturing Structure at PI Fractal Manufacturing Structure at PIPI manufactures in autonomous organization fractals. Each unit is responsible for its own product line, has all the necessary skills and production equipment.
- Metrology MetrologyPI qualifies its products with external measuring equipment. These are calibrated in part and traceable to a national standard. Using the PIOne incremental encoder and capacitive sensors, PI manufactures own metrology for inclusion in PI products.
- Manufacturing in Cleanrooms at PI Manufacturing in Cleanrooms at PIPI has the capability to manufacture and qualify products under cleanroom conditions, which is extended and improved continually according to market needs.
- Heavy Load Hall Heavy Duty Hall for Positioning Systems Weighing Several TonsThe product range from a two-ton hexapod to a ten-gram nanopositioner requires that PI can both manufacture and qualify these systems. For this reason, PI operates a heavy duty hall at its location in Karlsruhe for the assembly and measurement of masses up to five tons.
- Certified Quality Certified QualityPI aims to apply the same high quality, safety and environmental protection standards worldwide. The Integrated Management System reflects this commitment.
- The PI Group The PI GroupPI stands for technical excellence and continuous advance in precision positioning – driven by the passion for technology and its use in customer applications.
- About PI miCos PI miCos GmbH, GermanyAs a member of the PI Group, PI miCos makes a strong contribution in the field engineered systems and is the center of expertise for positioning systems with magnetic drives.
- PI Worldwide PI Worldwide
- How to Get to PI Korea! How to Get to PI Korea!
- PI BlogPI Blog제품, 기술, 애플리케이션, 뉴스, 전시회 및 기타 행사에 대한 정보를 확인하실 수 있습니다.
- Contact Us!
DC Motor / Servo Motor
A DC motor with position measurement is called servo motor. The typical characteristics of DC servo motors are uniform, vibration-free operation, a large velocity range, and high torques at low velocity. To benefit in a best possible way from these properties, a motor controller with proportional, integral, and differential control (PID) and suitable filters is required. The servo motor has numerous advantages, such as good dynamics, fast addressing, high torques at low velocities, reduced heat generation, and low vibration.
DC servo motors require an oprating voltage up to 12 VDC. The rotational velocity of the motor is directly proportional to the voltage; the prefix determines the direction. Repeatable positioning requires an additional measuring system.
Brushless DC Motor
PI increasingly uses electronically commuted, brushless DC motors, whereby optimized hollow shaft or torque motors achieve high torques. At the same time, the drive train can be made shorter for the same travel range as the drive shaft is located inside the motor.
ActiveDrive DC Motors
DC motor drives have numerous advantages, including good dynamic performance with a large control range, high torque at low revolutions, low heat dissipation, and low vibration at high position resolution. The cost of a high-performance linear amplifier, however, is generally higher than that for a stepper motor. The ActiveDrive system reduces this cost considerably by integrating a PWM (pulse width modulation) servo amplifier in the motor housing. The operating voltage of normally 24 V for ActiveDrive motors is supplied by a separate power supply included in the scope of delivery. The ActiveDrive concept provides several advantages:
- Increased efficiency by eliminating power losses between the amplifier and motor
- Reduced cost, more compact system, and improved reliability, because no external driver and cabling are required
- Elimination of noise radiation by mounting the amplifier and motor together in a single shielded case
Stepper Motor Drives
Contrary to DC motors, stepper motors only take up discrete positions in a revolution. As these steps have a constant distance, a position may be commanded using the number of steps without any need of a position sensor. Normally, there are 200 to 1000 full steps in each revolution. The actually achievable step width is determined by the stepper motor control, which electronically interpolates up to several hundred thousand microsteps in between the full steps depending on the version
PI uses smoothly running 2-phase stepper motors. Stepper motors have a very long service life and, compared to DC motors, are especially suited for applications with reduced dynamics and in a vacuum. A mechanical damper on the motor shaft, which also serves as a handwheel, ensures running smoothness. To maintain a position, stepper motors without self-locking gearhead need to be energized continually. This may cause a position jitter between the steps and generate heat.
System Management Controller Technology for Controlled Stepper Motor Stages
The control technology of the System Management Controller (SMC) stepper motor controls guarantees particularly smooth running of the motors. The result is a very high position resolution, smooth feed, and a large dynamic range of velocity and acceleration. The efficiency of the System Management Controller is very high so that heating of the motors is avoided. System Management Controllers are based on a 32-bit processor with high-resolution amplifiers enabling a position resolution down to the nanometer range. In combination with high-precision mechanical systems, uniform feed velocities of less than 1 μm/s can be achieved. Instead of a linear acceleration profile, a sin2 profile can be chosen so that smooth acceleration and deceleration phases are possible. If stable long-term positioning is required, System Management Controller stepper motor controllers also evaluate position measurement systems and control precisely. Processing of an analog 1 V peak-to-peak value allows setting the position very accurately and infinitely without limitation by bit-depending digital transformation.
System Management Controllers are available in different versions, from a one-channel compact unit to multi-axis control in a 19" housing.
Acurrate Positioning with System Management Controller
Fig. 1 shows 100 nm steps of a PLS-85 linear stage with two-phase stepper motor without additional position feedback. The stage carries out these steps with great precision. When commanding 25 nm steps (see Fig. 2), there are more variations in the individual steps. On average, these deviations are only ±5 nm.
The position behavior for small steps can be further improved by using a position control, in particular, if the analog output signal of a high-resolution sensor is used for processing. System Management Controllers can process sensor resolutions down to 2 nm, position resolution then only depends on the sensor. However, the environmental effects should not be neglected: variations in ambient temperature of only 0.01 °C already cause thermally induced expansion of the stage by approx. 10 nm. If required, ultra-precision stages or specific developments, such as stages with a granite base and corresponding high-resolution linear encoders, are used.
Fig. 3 shows the measured minimum incremental motion of an LS-110 stage with linear encoder. The 50 nm resolution can be clearly seen with precisely separated steps. Even changes in load do not affect this accuracy.
One decisive parameter for selecting a positioning system is velocity. More often than not this relates to the maximum achievable velocity, but some applications require a particularly slow and even feed motion. This is a major challenge for both stepper motors and DC motors. The velocity control of System Management Controllers guarantees an excellent stability of the stage velocity in the range of << 1 µm/s.
Fig. 4 shows the measuring results of a PLS-85 stage with integrated linear encoder with 10 nm resolution. The velocity was set to 100 nm/s, which equates to a feed of 360 µm/h or approx. 10 mm/d. The motion is very even. The individual steps shown here are due to the interferometer resolution of 5 nm.
Correcting the Position Error in the Controller
The quality of the guides and the drive train normally limits the positioning accuracy that can be achieved. A nonlinearity of the spindle pitch, for example, causes a deviation from the commanded position. In some applications it is important to improve the absolute positioning accuracy while bidirectional repeatability is less relevant. The error correction in the System Management Controller saves the measured deviation and then corrects the target position correspondingly.
Fig. 5 shows the deviation in position of 32 µm between target and actual position of an LS-180 over the travel range of 100 mm. The measurement includes both directions of motion; the average bidirectional repeatability is 1.78 µm.
The result is shown in Fig. 6: the deviation is considerably smaller, only about ±1.5 µm. Repeatability can be improved further by means of position control.