- Products ProductsPI is a worldwide leading supplier of solutions in the fields of motion and positioning. PI does not only develop and produce a broad range of positioning stages and actuators for linear, rotary and vertical motion or combinations of different axes. PI also adapts those solutions to customer-specific applications or supplies finished subsystems for motion and positioning.
- New Products New Products
- Product Finder Product FinderSelect the product type specified by the axes of motion required. Selection of more criteria expands or shortens the list of results. Select more than one filter at a time, for example, to find positioning stages designed for higher load capacity, too.
- Customized Products Customized ProductsPI is fully at home where unconventional solutions are in demand. This is no longer limited to fields of research. Today, nanotechnology is also present in standardized industrial processes.
- Nanopositioning Piezo Flexure Stages Nanopositioning Piezo Flexure StagesPI's piezo flexure stages combine sub-nanometer resolution and guiding precision with minimum crosstalk.
- Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages
- PIFOC® Objective & PInano® Sample Scanners for Microscopy PIFOC® Objective & PInano® Sample Scanners for Microscopy
- Linear Piezo Flexure Stages Linear Piezo Flexure Stages
- XY Piezo Flexure Stages XY Piezo Flexure Stages
- Piezo Flexure Tilting Mirrors Piezo Flexure Tilting Mirrors
- Multi-Axis Piezo Flexure Stages
- Miniature Stages Miniature StagesMiniaturized stages and manipulators are essential in mobile applications for measuring and medical devices, in industrial microassembly or use for research, e.g. in UHV and non-magnetic environments.
- Miniature Linear Stages Miniature Linear Stages
- Miniature Rotation Stages Miniature Rotation Stages
- Miniature Hexapods Miniature Hexapods
- Miniature Linear Stages
- Linear Stages Linear StagesPI offers a wide range of motorized linear stages to supply high-precision industrial markets like semiconductor and photonics, as well as high-end research. Vacuum versions are available for a large number of different models. Multi-axis compositions can be set up with adapter brackets or specialized vertical stages and compatible rotation stages.
- Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor
- Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors
- Vertical Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors Vertical Stages with Stepper, DC & Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors
- Miniature Linear Stages Miniature Linear Stages
- Stages with PIMag® Magnetic Direct-Drive Linear Motor
- Linear Actuators Linear ActuatorsChoose from the widest range of technologies the optimum for your special demands: Set-and-forget applications benefit from the specific features of piezomotors that provide excellent long-term stability, also for vacuum or nonmagnetic environments. Stepper and DC motor solutions are well-established and reliable for both industrial and research use.
- PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability
- Linear Actuators with Stepper & DC Servo Motors Linear Actuators with Stepper & DC Servo Motors
- PIMag® VC Voice Coil Actuators with High Dynamics & Force Control Option PIMag® VC Voice Coil Actuators with High Dynamics & Force Control Option
- PiezoMove Lever Actuators PiezoMove Lever Actuators
- Nanopositioning Piezo Actuators Nanopositioning Piezo Actuators
- PiezoWalk® Actuators with High Force & Stability PiezoWalk® Actuators with High Force & Stability
- PIRest Active Piezo Shims PIRest Active Piezo Shims
- PiezoMike for Long-Term Stability
- Rotation Stages Rotation StagesPI offers stages with all kinds of motorization and guiding options: air-bearing, torque motor driven, motorized worm-gear coupled, tiny piezomotor stages and specialized goniometer stages with orthogonal tip-tilt mounting option.
- XY Stages XY StagesStability, precision and dynamics are crucial in the application fields of PI’s XY stages. They are the basis of high throughput rates and reliable operation. PI makes use of own developments in the fields of PIMag® magnetic linear motors and PIglide air bearings. Industrial production and quality control benefit from PI’s high-load XY stages and planar scanners.
- Hexapods HexapodsHexapods provide 6 degrees of freedom in the most compact package. In combination with absolute measuring sensors, software and motion controllers that make the most complicated motion profiles easy to command, PI hexapods answer industrial requirements.
- Engineered Systems Engineered SystemsPrecision components, stable control and a great deal of experience in engineering are essential for high-precision complex motion and positioning solutions. PI is a supplier of technologically sophisticated drive components and high-precision positioners and also offers all levels of integration up to the turnkey solution.
- Fast Multi-Channel Photonics Alignment Fast Multi-Channel Photonics Alignment SystemsPiezo scanners take care of fast, continuous scanning tasks, where durability, dynamics, and precision matter. The larger travel ranges are realized with XYZ combinations or 6-axis hexapods. Integrated routines make it possible to perform single-axis alignments up to complex, multi-axis fiber array positioning within the shortest possible time.
- Motion Control Software Motion Control SoftwareAll digital controllers made by PI are accompanied by an extensive software package.
- Concepts Concepts
- User Programs and Their Functions User Programs and Their Functions
- Software Tools for Hexapods Software Tools for Hexapods
- Programming Programming
- Third Party Support Third Party Support
- Controllers & Drivers Controllers & DriversThe decision for a motion controller depends on the specific application situation. Various criteria, such as limited installation space, the number of axes or the type of control, determine which controller is the right one. PI offers a broad spectrum of controls and regulation concepts.
- Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers
- Piezo Drivers for Open-Loop Operation of Piezo Actuators Piezo Drivers for Open-Loop Operation of Piezo Actuators
- Motion Controllers & Drivers for Linear, Torque, Stepper & DC Servo Motors Motion Controllers & Drivers for Linear, Torque, Stepper & DC Servo Motors
- Controllers & Drivers for Piezomotors Controllers & Drivers for Piezomotors
- Controller Systems for Multiple Axes & Mixed Drive Types Controller Systems for Multiple Axes & Mixed Drive Types
- Hexapod Motion Controllers Hexapod Motion Controllers
- ACS Motion Control ACS Motion Control for Industrial Applications
- Nanopositioning Piezo Controllers
- Piezoelectric Transducers & Actuators Piezoelectric Transducers & ActuatorsPiezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are available in a wide range of shapes like disks, plates or tubes, and different performance levels. They can be adapted to application requirements by using different piezoceramic materials, electrodes, and assembling technology.
- Air Bearings & Stages Air Bearings & StagesAir bearing stages are used where vibration-free motion is required, velocity needs to be highly constant, and optimum angular repeatability is requested.
- Sensors, Components & Accessories Sensors, Components & Accessories
- New Products
- OEM OEMCustomer- and application-specific product developments form the basis for success at PI. To this purpose, requirements have to be understood and a technological solution has to be found.
- ApplicationsApplications & MarketsPI positioning systems are employed where technology is pushed forward in industry and research. This is done, for example, in semiconductor manufacturing, in medical engineering, in biotechnology, in plant engineering, in surface metrology, or in astronomy.
- Hexapods Support Industrial Robots Hexapods Support Industrial Robots
- Scientific Instrumentation Scientific Instrumentation
- Hexapod Systems for ALMA Hexapod Systems for ALMA
- Double-Crystal Monochromator Double-Crystal Monochromator for an X-Ray Spectrometer
- Materials Research in High Vacuum Materials Research in High Vacuum
- Active Vibration Isolation with Piezo Actuators Active Vibration Isolation with Piezo Actuators
- Drive Technology for the ELT Drive Technology for the ELT
- Hexapod Systems for ALMA
- Semiconductor Technology Semiconductor Technology
- Microscopy Microscopy
- Confocal Microscopy Adjustment of the Focal Planes in Confocal Microscopy
- Positioning Solutions for Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) Positioning Solutions for Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM)
- High-Speed Microscopy High-Speed Microscopy for Quality Control
- Atomic Force Microscopy AFM Scanner for Atomic Force Microscopy
- White Light Interferometry 3-D Surface Inspection With Piezo-Based Positioning Systems from PI
- Confocal Microscopy
- Silicon Photonics Silicon Photonics
- Photonics Packaging Automated Photonics Packaging
- Optical Fiber Alignment Simultaneous Testing of Optical Components in Silicon Photonics
- Photonics Packaging
- Medical Technology Medical Technology
- Endoscopy Chip-on-the-Tip Video Endoscopes with Miniature Drives
- Ophthalmology High-Precision Drives in Ophthalmic Surgery
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging Nonsensitive Drives for Magnetic Resonance Tomography
- Optical Coherence Tomography Piezo Technology and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
- Pipetting Piezomotors for Pipetting and Nanodispensing
- Precision Dosing Dynamic Drives for Precision Dosing with Nanodispensers
- Micropumps Piezoelectric Micropumps – Compact Design and High Performance
- Image Stabilization Image Stabilization and Microscanning with Piezo Scanners
- Adaptive Diaphragm Positioning Adaptive Diaphragm Positioning
- Materials Research Materials Research
- Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research High-Load Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research
- Laser Beam Control Piezo Drives for Laser Beam Control
- Parallel Kinematics for Materials Research
- Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical Discharge Machining Piezo Actuators Accelerate Electrical Discharge Machining
- Hexapods in Mechanical Engineering Hexapods in Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical Discharge Machining
- Automation Automation
- Smarter Motion Positioning Smarter Motion Positioning
- Hexapods in Microproduction Hexapods in Microproduction
- Hexapods for Quality Assurance Hexapods for Quality Assurance
- Magnetic Direct Drives Magnetic Direct Drives
- Motion Simulation with Hexapods Motion Simulation with Hexapods
- Flexibility in Dimensional Measuring Hexapod Systems in Automation
- Motion Compensation with Hexapods Motion Compensation with HexapodsDynamic hexapods with piezo drives: Best conditions for motion compensation.
- Fast Piezo Ultrasonic Drives Advance Technology Fast Piezo Ultrasonic Drives Advance Technology
- Laser Material Processing Laser Material Processing
- Smarter Motion Positioning
- Beamline Instrumentation Beamline Instrumentation
- Tomography Equipment Tomography Equipment
- Synchrotron Spectroscopy in Vacuum Synchrotron Spectroscopy in Vacuum
- Beam Preparation Beam Preparation
- Sample Positioning for Tomography Sample Positioning for Tomography
- Microscopy Microscopy
- Accelerator Technology Accelerator Technology
- Tomography Equipment
- Additive Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing
- TechnologyKnow-How & TechnologyPI combines its long-term experience in micro and nanopositioning technology with in-depth knowledge in the fields of mechanics, electronics, sensor engineering, and software. Thus, PI is able to offer its customers the most advanced drive technologies and system solutions.
- Piezo Technology Piezo TechnologyPI Ceramic offers a wealth of experience in the manufacturing of piezoceramic materials, components, and actuators. The piezoceramic materials can be adapted individually to perfectly fit the later use of the piezo components.
- Fundamentals of Piezo Technology Fundamentals of Piezo TechnologyPhysical basics and explanations of piezo electricity and electromechanics.
- Properties of Piezo Actuators Properties of Piezo Actuators
- Piezoceramic Materials Piezoceramic MaterialsPI Ceramic offers a variety of different piezoelectric materials including lead-free materials.
- Manufacturing Technology Manufacturing Technology
- PICMA® Technology PICMA® Technology
- Integrated Piezo Actuators Integrated Piezo Actuators
- DuraAct Patch Transducer Technology DuraAct Patch Transducer Technology
- PIRest Actuators PIRest ActuatorsActive shims with long-term stability and nanometer resolution.
- Fundamentals of Piezo Technology
- Piezoelectric Drives Piezoelectric DrivesDepending on the configuration and control, piezoceramic actuators can be used to create translational motions or as motors with a virtually unlimited travel range. The choice of drive depends on the requirements of the application.
- Piezo Actuators Piezo Actuators with and without Guiding
- PiezoWalk® Walking Drives PiezoWalk® Walking Drives
- PILine® Ultrasonic Piezomotors PILine® Ultrasonic Piezomotors
- Piezo Inertia Drives Piezo Inertia Drives
- PiezoMike Linear Actuators PiezoMike Linear Actuators
- Comparison: Piezo Motors & Drive Technologies Comparison: Piezo Motors & Drive Technologies
- Piezo Actuators
- Electromagnetic Drives Electromagnetic DrivesRotating electric motors such as DC or stepper motors are used in connection with screw or worm drives. Stepper motor systems with high-resolution encoders can perform minimum incremental motions of 10 nm with high reliability and repeatability.
- Rotating Electric Motors Rotating Electric Motors from PI
- PIMag® Magnetic Direct Drives PIMag® Magnetic Direct Drives
- PIMag® 6-D Magnetic Levitation PIMag® 6-D Magnetic Levitation at Six Levels of Freedom
- Hybrid Concept Piezo & Motor Hybrid Concept
- Rotating Electric Motors
- Parallel Kinematics Parallel KinematicsIn a parallel-kinematic, multi-axis system, all actuators act directly on a single moving platform. This means that all axes can be designed with identical dynamic properties, thus reducing the moved mass considerably. Hexapods are used for moving and precision positioning, aligning and displacing loads in all six degrees of freedom, i.e., three linear and three rotational axes.
- Parallel Kinematics Piezo Positioning Systems with Parallel KinematicsIn a parallel-kinematic, multi-axis system, all actuators act directly on a single moving platform.
- Multi-Axis Positioners Multi-Axis Positioners and Stewart Platforms
- Hexapod as Motion Simulator Hexapod as Motion SimulatorMotion simulators have higher motion dynamics requirements (shakers).
- Parallel Kinematics
- Sensor Technologies Sensor TechnologiesThe linearity and repeatability achieved are not possible without highest-resolution measuring devices. Accuracies in the range of a few nanometers and below require a position measurement method that can also detect motion in this range.
- Capacitive Sensors Capacitance Nanosensors
- Incremental Sensors Linear Scale Encoders for Nanometrology & Nanopositioning
- PIOne Optical Nanometrology Encoder PIOne Optical Nanometrology Encoder
- Comparison: Position Sensor Technologies Comparison: Nanopositioning Sensor Technologies
- Capacitive Sensors
- Controllers & Software Controllers & SoftwareFast settling or extremely smooth low speed motion, high positional stability, high resolution and high dynamics – the requirements placed on piezo systems vary greatly and need drivers and controllers with a high degree of flexibility.
- Digital & Analog Interfaces Digital & Analog Interfaces
- EtherCAT Connectivity of PI Products EtherCAT Connectivity of PI Products
- Control of Piezo Actuators Piezo Controllers & Drivers for Nanopositioning Systems
- Digital Motion Controllers Digital Motion Controllers
- Digital & Analog Interfaces
- Guiding Systems & Force Transmission Guiding Systems & Force TransmissionFlexure joints, mechanical guide components or magnetic bearings? Which kind of guiding system PI uses in its products depends on parameters such as travel range, required precision, load, lifetime, and ambient conditions.
- Classical Guiding Systems Comparison: Classical Guiding Systems and Force Transmission
- Flexure Guiding Systems Flexure Guiding Systems for Nanopositioning & Piezo Actuators
- Magnetic Bearings Magnetic Levitation & Precision Bearings for NanopositioningMagnetic levitation allows excellent guiding accuracy in a plane, both linear and rotational.
- PIglide Air Bearing Technology PIglide Air Bearing TechnologyMulti-axis motion with nanometer precision and without friction.
- Classical Guiding Systems
- Vacuum Vacuum Compatible Linear & Rotary Stages, UHV PositionersCareful handling, adequate premises: PI does not only have the necessary equipment for the qualification of materials, components and final products, but also has many years of experience with regard to HV und UHV positioning systems.
- News & Events
- ServiceServiceHere you can find interesting information and online services from PI.
- On-Site Services On-Site ServicesThe PI Global Services Division (GSD) is a team of PI skilled after-sales support engineers located around the world, dedicated to providing world class customer support.
- Extended Warranty Extended Warranty
- Contracted Services Contracted Services
- Downloads DownloadsFind interesting downloads: Product documentations, brochures, catalogs, certificates, success stories and whitepapers
- Product Documentation & Software Product Documentation & SoftwareUser manuals, technical notes, datasheets, CAD files for download.
- Catalogs, Brochures & Certificates Catalogs, Brochures & CertificatesFind brochures, catalogs and certificates for download.
- Whitepapers & Success Stories Whitepapers & Success StoriesFind whitepapers and success stories for download.
- Product Documentation & Software
- Expert Consultancy from PI Expert Consultancy from PIIf our customers need to solve a complex problem, they often require individual advice. We will come to visit you.
- Ask an Engineer Ask an EngineerQuickly receive an answer to your question by email or phone from a local PI sales engineer.
- About PI KoreaAbout PI KoreaPI stands for technical excellence and continuous advance in precision positioning – driven by the passion for technology and its use in customer applications. The target of the PI Group is to develop this market and technological leadership even further and therefore secure a decisive competitive advantage for its customers.
- Technology Center Technology CenterThe technology center provides space not only for offices but also for application labs, metrology labs, and cleanrooms for vacuum or cryogenic chambers.
- Fractal Manufacturing Structure at PI Fractal Manufacturing Structure at PIPI manufactures in autonomous organization fractals. Each unit is responsible for its own product line, has all the necessary skills and production equipment.
- Metrology MetrologyPI qualifies its products with external measuring equipment. These are calibrated in part and traceable to a national standard. Using the PIOne incremental encoder and capacitive sensors, PI manufactures own metrology for inclusion in PI products.
- Manufacturing in Cleanrooms at PI Manufacturing in Cleanrooms at PIPI has the capability to manufacture and qualify products under cleanroom conditions, which is extended and improved continually according to market needs.
- Heavy Load Hall Heavy Duty Hall for Positioning Systems Weighing Several TonsThe product range from a two-ton hexapod to a ten-gram nanopositioner requires that PI can both manufacture and qualify these systems. For this reason, PI operates a heavy duty hall at its location in Karlsruhe for the assembly and measurement of masses up to five tons.
- Certified Quality Certified QualityPI aims to apply the same high quality, safety and environmental protection standards worldwide. The Integrated Management System reflects this commitment.
- The PI Group The PI GroupPI stands for technical excellence and continuous advance in precision positioning – driven by the passion for technology and its use in customer applications.
- About PI miCos PI miCos GmbH, GermanyAs a member of the PI Group, PI miCos makes a strong contribution in the field engineered systems and is the center of expertise for positioning systems with magnetic drives.
- PI Worldwide PI Worldwide
- How to Get to PI Korea! How to Get to PI Korea!
- PI BlogPI BlogFind news on products, technologies and applications, and information on trade fairs and other events.
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Control of Piezo Actuators and Piezo-Based Positioning Systems
PI piezo drivers and motion controllers offer:
- High linearity, high long-term stability
- Positioning with subnanometer accuracy
- Noise approx. 1 mV (RMS value)
- Low power consumption
- Notch filter for higher bandwidth
- Output voltages adapted to various piezo actuators and piezo drives
- Analog interfaces for fast direct commanding in real time
- Short circuit protection
Low-Noise and Drift-Free Piezo Amplifiers
The characteristic properties of piezo actuators include the generation of large forces and fast response. In electrical terms a piezo element corresponds to a capacitance. A rapid change to the operating voltage brings about a rapid displacement of the actuator and thus a change in position. When the control voltage suddenly increases, the piezo actuator can achieve its nominal displacement in only a few microseconds. A prerequisite for this is that the power supply provides sufficient current to charge the capacitance. For steady state operation, i.e., when holding a certain position, the stability of the power supply is crucial, as the piezoelectric actuators already respond with motion to the slightest voltage changes. Noise or drifting must therefore be avoided as far as possible.
Switched Amplifiers with Energy Recovery for Dynamic or Permanent Use
Applications with high load cycles exist, for example, in materials processing or in mechanical engineering during tool adjustment in milling and cutting machines. The actuators employed here operate with high forces and high dynamics and generally have a high electrical capacitance. As regards actuator control, the energy consumption of the amplifier is important. PI offers switching amplifier electronics, with which the pulse width of the control signal is modulated (PWM) and the piezo voltage is thereby controlled. This results in an especially high efficiency. In addition, a patented circuitry for energy recovery is integrated: When the piezo actuator is discharged, part of the returning energy is stored in a capacitive store and is made available again for the next charging operation. This permits energy savings of up to 80 % to be realized.
Unlike conventional class D switching amplifiers, PI switching amplifiers for piezo elements are current- and voltage-controlled. This patented system also makes them suitable for applications in active vibration damping. Here, adaptation to the currently required dynamic range is important.
Protection of the Piezo Actuator through Overheating Protection
High-performance electronics can evaluate the signals of a temperature sensor at the piezo. This protects the ceramics against overheating and premature aging.
Application ExamplesAcceleration testsStructural analysisMaterials testing and precision engineeringShock testsMachine testingActive vibration dampingSwitching applicationsInjection valve control
- Peak power to 280 W
- High currents to 2000 mA
- Low power consumption due to integrated energy recovery
- OEM module and top hat rail mounting
- Peak current to 10 A
- Output voltage range -30 to 130 V
- Module for E-500 piezo controller rack
- Position control (optional)
- Computer interface and display modules
Charge Amplifier for Piezo Control without Hysteresis
Charge control is based on the principle that the displacement of piezo actuators is much more linear when an electrical charge is applied instead of a voltage. In the first case, hysteresis is only approximately two percent compared with between 10 to 15 percent when using voltage control.
Therefore, charge control can often be used to achieve the required precision even without a servo loop. This enhances the dynamics and reduces the costs. Charge control is not only of advantage in highly dynamic applications but also when it comes to operation at very low frequencies.
As the drift in position of the piezo actuator is not adjusted, charge control does not replace position-controlled operation for tasks where positions need to be maintained for longer periods.
Application ExamplesActive vibration dampingValve control (e.g., pneumatics)Adaptive systems technologyDosingHigh-speed mechanical switches
- Highly linear amplifier module
- For dynamic applications
- Output voltage range -30 to 130 V
- Peak current 2 A, continuous current 215 mA
Position Control: Control Electronics Optimizes System Properties
Closed-loop position control compares the target position with the position measured by the sensor (actual value) and automatically compensates for the nonlinear properties of the piezo actuator, such as hysteresis and drift.
Position control is based on a proportional integral control loop specifically optimized for piezo operation. One or more adjustable notch filters considerably improve usable bandwidth and dynamics because fringe effects due to system-intrinsic resonances are suppressed before they can affect the system stability.
Optimized control algorithms minimize settling times so that the closed-loop piezo positioning systems from PI can achieve a repeatability down to the subnanometer range and bandwidths to 10 kHz.
Controller Tuning / Calibration
To optimize system performance, various information about the application is required, such as the desired operating frequency, the size and weight of the payload, or the spring constant of a preload in relation to which the piezo actuator is operated.
Precision Motion ControlTEC68 10/2017English